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ʶٻ਴ؤǴ article

ʶٻ਴ؤ·Ǵ

 ҧطȵɷ - ʹҾط㹴Թᴹԭͧѷ ԹҹẺҷ ʵҷԹ (ʵҷԹ Թҹաѷ˹ ¡ҹԡ½˹ è֡ѹʡĵ ѷԹѡ;պصоҡѨ¹繺) кҧչҨҹ ¹鹷Թ ǹ˭ŻʷػШдçԭͧҡ ʹҾطҹѧèǺѹ ѹ ʶҺѹҧط˭ ǧչ¹ѧ;жѧӨ ҹԡҨҡͧչҷӡ֡Ҿطʹҷ ͹鹹ѹҹ

 㹾طȵɷ 龺оطٻҧȹ ҧ͹кҷѧѴû Ѵ ʶٻ˭ վоطٻҢҴ˭㹫ҹ ǹ繾й¾кҷẺ (оطٻҹ¾кҷ ҷ辺ͧբҴ˭ͺҡѹѡɳС¡ѹ ҷѴ û 繾лиҹ㹾ʶ л਴ ҷ¢ǷԾԸѳʶҹ觪ҵ ҨҡѴع ´ 鹹ٹ٧ ùѴ˹Ҿ ظ ѧͧҹ觷ͧҳ٧ԹբҴ§ѹ Ǿоطٻ١)
 Ҩҡͧᴴ٧ҧ ٻҪçзѺҧҹҷٻй¾кҷ ѡɳҡù¾кҷẺ ҧҨҡŻẺػШҡԹ
 
蹤û ѡҹҷ蹤͹÷Ǵ çѺӨ;Ѵ 㹨˵آͧǧչ¹ѧ (ǹҧ, жѧӨ) 觷ҹѹ֧֡㹴Թᴹᶺ ͹֧ ¹¡ ҹ ŻзǴշ蹤ûդҡй͡ҡٻẺͧҹеҡ͹ŻФػзԹ;طȵɷ ºҷ辺ѧѴâҧѴҧ㹴Թᴹû ¤ػá͹طȵɷ ѧѺԷԾŨҡŻǴ ҧշҶ֧Ǵմ« ǡѺͧͧѹջѵԡ㹺ѹ֡ͧչ¡Ѻٹѹ ;طȵɷ ˵بչ¡ ͧԹ ѹᴹͧ 觹ѡҪҧҳǹ˭Ѻѹ ͧҷͧͧ ͧԹ 龺ѡҹŻҶ֧Ǵ йù׹ҹǧҶ֧ѷҹè ҡʶٻҢҴ蹤û (ʶٻҢҴ蹤û ѨغѹʹԾԸѳʶҹ觪ҵ й)

 ѡҳ龺ǹͧѵ˹ͺѧ٧ҡͧЦѧբҴ ѺӨ֡ѡäijҺ “¸...” ѹ繷ѹ㹹ûʶٻẺʹѵ٧ǹ¡Ѻٻʶٻѡѹ˹ͧҹͧҹҴͧ к·ǴҤҹաӹǹҡѡ᡹ҧͧٻʶٻ٧ ʶٻẺػѧ (ҳطȵɷ -)

 ǹʶٻЦѧ˭ ҹҧçẺçк͡ ѧ ʶٻʶٻػ;طȵɷ - »ҡͧ ͡ҡʶٻԹ 辺ǹҭ .عԹ .ɮҹ ʶٻԹẺػѹբҴ˭ҷعԹ ӹǹҡѧçҳҺdzͧ·Ǵ Ѻ¤ػԹ ҧҨеçѺͧѧءЫ觡Ƕ֧㹨˵آͧչ ٻçʶٻҡͧѧբʧ ѡɳʶٻẺػ Ǵ»ٹ鹡Ѻǹ Сͺѹ

 ǹʶٻ¤ػз蹤û Ѩغѹ ͡ҡԹԹ ͧͧաҧҧҧʶٻʹѡѧ ѧ֧ҧҧỴҧʶٻҹʶٻٻҧҧҡ ҧԹԨ ʶٻ˭л਴ͧ ٻҧҧͤẺǡѺʶٻѭ 繵
 ѭԹ »ҳ;طȵɷ з ѹµȡҪ

֧ҹ Һѧԭʶٻ蹤ûҧẺǡѺʶٻѭ ʴʹҾطԹҹҷͧ¹ 觡çѺͤѹ㹤ǧѧ ѹкҾȡҪçٵطʹѧͧԹѧ óѹʹԹᴹ㹻ºҧҨҧǡѺʶٻ˭ح 繫ҡʶٻҧ͹ҧиҵ਴¾ҷԨ (ҡԹջó Ƕ֧¾ҷԨ “...ҡչ 繻շҷԨçɡ վиҵ਴ǧҡح лչ繻շʴһԹԾҹ ǹѤբͧҷԨçй Ǵ çҧʶٻ ó਴)

 ҷԧѡҹ蹪Ѵչ͡ҡҡʶٻҷ蹤û Ѻѡҹѹ֡ͧح ͧͧ͡繨֧Ҩ繷ѺѹǡѺ਴ٻͤӷ蹤û

             բ稨ԧҧ˹ ʶٻ਴ؤѡբҴؤͧ§ѹѧ ਴Ժͧ¾һҷͧ 辺 ѴѲ ظ ѴŹҡҧԹ ѴЪ 蹤ͧ 觹ʶҹҧšѹҡ ਴ҧ ٻҧҴ §ѹ ҧ਴աç٧Ẻз辺ѧѴٻ Ѵá ѴҸҵ 觹ؾó Ѻ਴ѴЪǡѹ ǹ§ѹաҴẺҧ ਴ͧա˹觤 ਴Ѵ ä Ѵ ž ѴعͧѴ˭  ظ ਴蹹ҧ਴иҹ ٻҧ͹ѹ ЦѧͧѺѧỴ ԰ͻٹҡѹҧʹԷ Ҵ٧¡ѹա

 ;ԨóҶ֧ʶٻ਴·ʴ稨ԧǡѹ ẺἹ͹ѹТҴ§ѹ ᵡҧѹҡ ͹ԹԹ਴ բҴҡѺ਴çͤ蹾ȡҪԹ ҡҨлҳҧҺ ਴ͧͧл਴ѭԡٻѳҹҧѪŷ ͧҹ侷բͧͧ컰 ẺǡѺлⷹǹҹٻҧ͹ͤͧҧлҧ鹢ҧͧ ٻҧ֧¹

 лⷹ礧ǡѹ ԧҳҺdzᶺ ҡӢͧ ʶٻ˭Ẻлⷹ਴ӹǹҡ ١ҧҪҢ԰ҡʶٻ 件ҧö ᶺҡҧ͡¶֧л਴ աʶٻ਴ӹǹҡ¨¹ѧաǺҹѡҧҧ䶹ҡ͹ͧʶٻ਴좹Ҵ ʶٻ਴Ѵ ҹѧл਴իй 觹ѡҳѹɰҹҤСҧ¹Ẻҹѹ਴ء 繡üԴҴ ҹѹ਴繢ͧҧ;طȵɷ ·׹㹫ͧҹʶٻ਴ ¹ Թ з˹ ҧ繾׹¡ѹ駹 ԷԾعçҡ

ǹѴ繾й¾кҷẺǡѺʶٻػ㹶Ъѹ  վй¾кҷ˹ʶٻ 觹ѡҳջҳǾطȵɷ - çѺǴ ʹپоطٻǡçѺ¤ػ ֧ҳ ͧоطٻҨШѡ;طȵɷ ֧ ҡ稨ԧѹºѺùҷ оطٻǹ˭ѹࢵùҷ繾Фػ Ҩлҳطȵɷ - ҡٻз¾кҷ ջҡ躹Ҩӹٹ ҧѹ բҴ Ҩ繢ͧҷ ǹ˭鹷辺Żѧ վз觢ѴҸྪûҧȹ ǹ˭繾׹ѡɳŻФػЪѴ շẺйẹٹ 觹ѡ蹾зҧ¡ ͧẹзͧ й¾кҷ֧Ѵ繾ҡ ҧӡطȵɷ ҧ ʶٻ਴Ѵ ;ԨóҶ֧ءáҧŻ Ҩǵطȵɷ ʶٻٻçк͡ ẺǡѺʶٻ㹶Ъѹ ʶٻùҷ ÷ʶٻѴհҹ ʴҫŧҹ» ͹´ٻͧӡâش਴ͧ §ҹͧµҵ¡ ˹ҷ§ҹҾҧͧʶٻ
 
ѡҹҹ׹ѹ ͧǴշ蹤û׹§ҹҡ Ͷ਴ͧͧл਴¹ ʴѴҧ¾ȡҪ ǹʶٻ਴Ѵлⷹ ѧ ҨǾطȵɷ ѹçѺǴ բҴ硡Ҿл਴ҡ ʶٻ਴Ѵ Ӻǹѹطҹ ҨҧطѡҪ - ¶ͨҡẺἹ¤ػࡳ ʶٻͧع ǧҾطȵɷ - ŧʶٻẺ ¡ҧʶٻ˭ ¹鹡礧աáҧʶٻẺ͹繪 Żлѧ Ѻʶٻá¾ ʶٻ繷çк͡Ẻػҹվоطٻ§繪 ӹǹҡºǧͧʶٻ ѧҹӹǹ鹵ӴѺ վоطٻ׹è㹫 ǵء ʶٻẺǾطȵɷ - çѺŻͧ ਴ѴشѴաѺó਴ 觹ẺҨҡѺ਴͹繪Żⷹ਴ ѡɳзѴਹͫ§·ء鹨繾׹è㹫ʴ¾طȵɷ - Ż¹ѺԹµ鹵 Ҩ֧ ҧԷԾẺἹŻѹǡѹ
 
਴չŻⷹʶٻػⷹ਴ ŻзǴ»Ǿطȵɷ - ʶٻʹ԰ͻٹ ʶٻͧ繪ҹҧشٻٹ繪Ҵҧ è㹪ͧ ͧҴ 觴. ġ ѹɰҹ 繪Ҵջҡ㹤ͧطԹҹ ʵҷԹ ѹš仨ҡԹҹҷ
 ͹٨еçѺ֡٧ ž 觡Ƕ֧ѹҧʹҾط¹ԡ 駽¾
 ʶٻ਴·Ǵյ͹¹ҨѺԷԾŨҡʶٻ਴» ҳطȵɷ - 觹ҹаҹỴ Ͱҹѧҡ਴ҧͧҷͧҨͧԹ㹨˵بչ

 ǹ਴Ţ ͧ ਴ҹǡѺͧҨʶٻẺǡѺѴŧͧҺҹٺͧҪ ç׹ 繰ҹʶٻẺǡѺ辺㹹ѹ 觡԰ͻٹǡѹ
 кá԰ҷǨͺѧѴءʶٻ਴ͧ ѡСʹ԰Ҵ˭ ͻٹ §԰˹ǡѺ˹ҡҧѺѹᶺǡѹ çѺкҡŷ¡кԪ  (Flemish bond) §԰Ṻ¹ʹԷǡѺкá԰ͧŻẺҤҹͧµҧҵҧáҧҧͧк ҧ觫»ҳطȵɷ - 蹷ҧ㹾 ¡ѹ ؾҾѵаҹʶٻ਴ͧиҹѴ žաѺ਴Ѵعͧ ظ §԰к͡ǡѹ çѺк§԰¡кδ (Header bond)

 Ҵͧ԰繨شӤѭ㹡õǨͺʶٻ਴·ô ǹ˭ ԰·ǴըբҴ˭԰ͧ ؾó ⢷¸ ҨС԰ͻٹ ʹҧѺԹ͹ѹ ͡ҡѧբѧࡵҹ͡ҡ԰ǴբҴҧ˹˭԰ͧءǹ ѧᴧ͹ҡء ѡѧࡵ§Ժ԰Ҵ١öѹ ҧѧࡵ֧ǹѹź ¢ͧźѡɳǹź˹Ǩ֧ʧ¡ѹ ǷǴըШѺзҹѺ˹Сѧ

 ǹ˭ʶٻǴҨзҤ ûҤҹѡ԰Ҵ˭԰ͧ ¸ؾó§袹ҴҨᵡҧѹ ѧ԰ͧѧբҴ x  x . ҧѹ碹Ҵ x x . ԰ùҷѹ¡ѺǴբҴѴ x x /., x x ., x x . ѧࡵ԰Թǹҧҡ ˹Ҵ٨й¡ ǹǢͧҡǡ á԰кҧʹԹ ԰ѹҢҴ x x /., x x . Ѵ԰੾ǹŻФػле͹ ԰ط¤ػբҴ x x . Ҿú§԰ͧѺѴ ǹ˭ѡ§԰кẺǡѺԪ͹ ( ԰˹ǡѺ˹ҵѴѺѹµʹ ) ùҷ੾зѹҧŻФػ ԰Ҵ x x /. §԰꧵ʹء

 ԰·Ǵշ⤡ഹ (ͧ͹ͧ) ԰ʹ´Թ Ҵ԰ x x . 觢Ҵ԰ǴժѴਹ ԰ͧ蹷Ǵ㹨ѧѴط¸ҹ ¡ ͧ Ҵ԰ x x . աͻٹҧ§԰ẺẺǡѺùҷ

 Ҵͧ԰֧պҷ͹ҧҡ㹡Ԩʶٻ਴·Ǵǹ˭ѡʹ԰պҧʹŧ 㹾鹷 Ҩչ ҳʶҹǴѡӴŧ 

 բ͹ѧࡵС˹ ʶٻ蹷Ǵջҳطȵɷ Ҩе»ѡзʶٻҹ պѹ䴢鹴ҹ˹ հҹѡԳʶٻ駺ҹѡԳա˹ çԧѹͷͧѹ䴡԰ٻẺѲѹ ҧ觡 Ҩչ Żⷹ਴зͧ ѧҹҷͧԧѹٻѲѹ ҧѧٻѲѹѧѡǴ繪 ͧǧ ٻѵҧ ҧԧ 繵 ԡ÷Ѳѹ Ҩ繤ҳѧ׺Ҩ֧ظ 㹾ҪǴáاظ Ƕ֧зྪһҷ պѹŧ鹴Թҹ˹ Ѳѹԧѹ 觶֧Թ蹹׺ʹѹҹҹҡ

 Ҿʶٻ਴ç٧ʹ٧ѧҡ᡹ҧҷҹ ѡɳФ ͵ǨͺѺʶٻ蹷Ǵյ͹ͻе͹ ѺʶٻẺҴ͹ ȵҧ ѧ ʶٻҴѹԹ繵 ҳǾطȵɷ ѧࡵЦѧͧʶٻҾ ͧ ҡЦѧ͵çԧͺ ٻ͹ 觡ҵçѺʶٻЦѧç͹ӷç٧ ѹҡ·ǴҤҹͧҨ֧Ҩлҳ ŻẺǴշҤҹͧ׹ҹȵ ҨШҡطȵɷ ֧طȵɷ

 ٻʶٻѡѴҧ ѧѴ˹ͧẺʶٻաẺ˹ ᵡҧҡẺʶٻЦѧç͹ӷ辺ẺǴҹ 繷š辺ҡʶٻҷó·Ǵҹͧ ҤǡѺû ١¨

 ٻʶٻԹԺӤآ .˹Ҷ .ͧ . 辺оԹԺй¾кҷẺǴմ 觴ʶٻǹҨŻзǴյ͹µ͡ѺŻл ҳ㹾طȵɷ ͧʶٻЦѧպѧͧʶٻ駺ҹպdzçҧ ԴѺҹ

 ºѺʶٻԹ ѹѧͧ .ѧ .ѵҹ ʶٻçЦѧͧҧ§ŧҡЦѧ Ẻ͹ѺẺʶٻ»е͹鹻ҳطȵɷ - 㹢ǡѺҾٻʶٻԹЦѧçк͡ẺŻ¤ػ ҳطȵɷ - ֧Դҹ觹 (觷ҹ·ҹ ͧѧءШҡ˵بչ) ׹ҹҧµ¾طȵɷ Ҩ֧طȵɷ ֧٭ ѡҹѴ 觹èҡ͹ ·ҳҨѡԪѧʶһԪӹҨʹ ѧءСѧç áѧҹ㹨˵آͧǹҧ;жѧӨ맡;طȵɷ “ҧȵѹͧǴеѹ͡§ͧɵ ǧչ¹ѧҧ˹ ѧ˭ʵҨ ҨФ׹ͧԹ ѧ-- (㹺ѹ֡ͧԧ) 觷ҹ·ҹҺط ҡ仵ѹɰҹջѭ ͧѧ (ѧء) ѵҹ 龺ѡҹŻзǴ ٻ鹻ٹ͹Ѻٻ鹻ٹ¾طȵɷ ԾԸѳʶҹ觪ҵͧʶٻԹ ͧѧ ʶٻẺػ ѹѡҹ׹ѹѹŧТǡѹͧҨ繡ѧǡѹ

 ʶٻẺǴẺͤػз辺Ҥҹͧ· .Թ ͧᴴ٧ҧ ʶٻҹ ͡ §ҹ˹Ͱҹ ҨʶٻǴѧž;طȵɷ ҹʶٻ鹡԰ͻٹŻзǴ к§԰ѡɳ԰͹Ѻҡҹ˭ͧᴴ٧ҧͧ Ǵ·ҡ »ٹ ١º ҹʶٻиҵҤٹẺػ

 ҡҹ÷شѧͧҷѹԪ ʹ԰ͻٹ ԰ٻҡ繺١ǵҧŻСҧ·Ǵ ͹Ѻҡҹ÷ͧᴴ٧ҧҡǡѹͧ

 




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